In a tensile test, the maximum tensile stress of the sample until it breaks is the tensile strength, which is called tensile strength in academia, and the result is expressed in MPa.

During the tensile process of the sample, the material passes through the yield stage and enters the strengthening stage. After the transverse section size is significantly reduced, the maximum force (Fb) that it bears when it breaks is divided by the original cross-sectional area (So) of the sample. Stress (σ) is called tensile strength or strength limit (σb), and the unit is N/(MPa). It represents the maximum ability of a metal material to resist damage under tensile force. The calculation formula is:

σ=Fb/So

In the formula: Fb--the maximum force that the sample bears when it is broken, N (Newton); So--the original cross-sectional area of the sample, mm2.

(1) When using the instrument to test the tensile strength of the sample, the tensile breaking stress, tensile yield stress, elongation at break and other data can be obtained together.

(2) In the stress-strain curve, the point where the elongation will rise even if the load does not increase is usually called the yield point, the stress at this time is called the yield strength, and the deformation rate at this time is called the yield elongation; In the same way, the stress and deformation rate at the breaking point are called tensile strength at break and elongation at break, respectively.

1. Uncertainty of material performance

Mainly refers to the variability of material properties (such as strength, elastic modulus) in the structure or component caused by material factors, process, loading, environment, size and other factors;

2. Uncertainty of component geometric parameters

Mainly refers to the variability of the geometrical dimensions of components caused by dimensional deviation and installation errors;

3. Uncertainty of calculation model

Mainly refers to the variability caused by the basic assumptions and calculation formulas used in the calculation of resistance.

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